Arte rupestre en Paraguay

Arte rupestre en Paraguay

El arte rupestre es conocido en Paraguay desde 1973, a partir de una expedición del Ministerio de Obras Públicas dirigida por el geólogo Pedro González para el reconocimiento del Amambay.

Ese año, la prensa de Asunción publicó un avance del resultado de la expedición en el que se informaba el hallazgo de numerosas cuevas – más bien abrigos o aleros – con arte prehistórico e industria lícita.

Poco después, se publicó un libro de arqueología ficción y una novela pseudohistórica reproduciendo alguna foto o dibujo de los grabados del cerro Guazú (departamento de Amambay) y de Ita Letra (departamento de Guairá) calificándolos de escritura rúnica y atribuyéndolos a los vikingos (Mahieu 1972 y 1975; Pistilli 1978); estos libros tuvieron gran impacto y aceptación imponiendo esta invención en cualquier ámbito de Paraguay como si se tratara de algo demostrado científicamente.

Tal fantasía o desatino no tuvo crédito alguno fuera del país, fue rechazada en un par de publicaciones por el arqueólogo argentino J. Schobinger (1977-78 y 1982) y no tuvo más atención, sin embargo caló muy hondo en el país, acuñándose en el imaginario colectivo como algo cierto.

1) Ita guy Guasu, Ita guy Mirî e Ita guy’i. Los tres en el cerro Guaz’u (Jasuka Venda).
2) Otros sitios en el parque nacional Cerro Corá. Todos en el departamento de Amambay.
3) Ita Letra y otro en la cordillera de Yvyturuzu (departamento de Guairá)
Imagen: Lasheras & Fatás (2014)

Desde entonces ha habido algunas alusiones escuetas sobre la mera existencia de grabados rupestres a raíz de las ilustraciones que hay en los aludidos libros de arqueología ficción y a partir de lo dicho por J. Schobinger, con lo que se completa lo publicado sobre el arte rupestre de Paraguay.

Sumando los abrigos inventariados en 2008 y en 2011, se ha entregado a la Secretaría Nacional de Cultura el inventario detallado de trece sitios con arte rupestre (once en abrigo y dos al aire libre) y de otros sitios arqueológicos al aire libre, sólo con hallazgos de industria lítica en superficie.

Los moldes de pisadas en Itaguy Guazu fueron datados por termoluminiscencia, cuyo resultado arrojó 5.212 Antes del Presente.

En Paraguay, en general, hasta la divulgación de nuestra investigación arqueológica, tanto en los medios de comunicación como en folletos de turismo, libros de todo tipo, incluso en ámbitos académicos se aludía de modo casi absoluto a estos grabados como inscripciones rúnicas o como arte vikingo, opinión de la que sólo se apartaban algunos antropólogos.

Petroglifos en el cerro Lorito (departamento de Amambay). Gentileza – Geól. Hugo Morínigo.
 

Desde 2006, se han realizado conferencias y encuentros en universidades avanzando datos y valoraciones científicas. Esto, y su impacto en los medios de comunicación, han corregido ese error: ya no se atribuye el arte rupestre a los vikingos; ahora los términos de Arte Rupestre y Prehistoria ya se asocian al primer poblamiento humano del territorio (…). El arte rupestre, en las páginas escolares, se relaciona a lo autóctono y original prehistórico.

Ref.: (Lasheras, Fatás & Allen, 2011)

Gracias a los amigos de Geología del Paraguay por compartir con El Parlante esta noticia.

Fuente: https://www.facebook.com/Geolog%C3%ADa-del-Paraguay-101793589883266/?__tn__=%2Cd%2CP-R&eid=ARA6aFigWMwEBiqEIHqQ3KXfj3GgzguinFcrHErXszHWVMcGJ5OM8YuFv369R5PChnplfGjXUo1_cfuB

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