Inteligencia Artificial y los relatos sobre el futuro del mundo

Inteligencia Artificial y los relatos sobre el futuro del mundo

Según Yuval Noah Harari en su libro 21 Lecciones para el siglo XXI se conocen tres relatos históricos sobre la forma en que se maneja el mundo: El fascista, el comunista y el liberal. La segunda guerra mundial destrozó el primer relato, mientras que los dos últimos estuvieron en una lucha constante durante la guerra fría, saliendo triunfadora la ideología liberal luego de la caída del muro de Berlín. A día de hoy, ésta se empezó a ver desfasada tras la crisis financiera del 2008, y también, desde que las nuevas tecnologías empezaron a desplazar al ser humano y hacerlo sentir innecesario.  

Fuente: ABC España.

En 1938 a los humanos se les ofrecían tres relatos globales entre los que elegir, en 1968 solo dos y en 1998 parecía que se imponía un único relato; en 2018 hemos bajado a cero.

No es extraño que esté renaciendo de cierta forma el relato comunista, y que a China continental no se la vea del lado malo de la historia. Esto debido a que el liberalismo cada vez se encuentra más desorientado, y las personas ya no se sienten identificadas o representadas con esta ideología.

Harari menciona que día tras días se difunden nuevos conceptos, como el de globalización, inteligencia artificial o ingeniería genética. Y, que la gente empieza a sospechar por alguna razón, que ninguno tiene que ver con ella. El relato liberal era el de la gente de a pie. ¿Cómo puede seguir siendo relevante en un mundo de cíborgs y de algoritmos conectados en red? 

¿Tenemos alguna idea de en qué se basan estas concepciones? Pues poco y nada, “Tanto los políticos como los votantes apenas pueden comprender las nuevas tecnologías, y no digamos ya regular su potencial explosivo.” Y además, menciona Harari “Los humanos siempre han sido mucho más duchos en inventar herramientas que en usarlas sabiamente.”

Aún así, desde el inicio de la revolución tecnológica, ya nos empezamos a imaginar en cómo sería nuestro futuro. La inteligencia artificial (IA) ha sido reflejada de cierta manera en la ciencia ficción (no acertada según el historiador), como por ejemplo robots aniquilando humanos y tratando de dominar el mundo. “Cada vez nos basaremos más en los algoritmos para que tomen decisiones por nosotros, pero es improbable que estos empiecen conscientemente a manipularnos. No tendrán ninguna conciencia.”

Fuente: TyN Magazine.

Y en cuanto al trabajo, es muy probable que haya una cooperación entre humanos e inteligencia artificial (como la conocemos actualmente en países que desarrollaron estas tecnologías como Alemania o Japón), más allá de una competición entre los mismos o una sustitución total del hombre por la máquina.

“…Será mucho más difícil sustituir a los humanos por máquinas en tareas menos rutinarias que exijan el uso simultáneo de un amplio espectro de habilidades, y que impliquen tener que afrontar situaciones imprevistas”

Pero, lo que podríamos considerar como negativo en el desarrollo futuro de la IA, es la aparición de nuevas desigualdades. Cuando se vuelva indispensable en muchos aspectos, nos daremos cuenta que no todos podrán acceder a ella, ya que los costos de su producción son elevados. “Si los nuevos tratamientos para alargar la vida y mejorar las condiciones físicas y cognitivas acaban siendo caros, la humanidad podría dividirse en castas biológicas.”

Otra cuestión que deberíamos de tener en cuenta, es que las élites necesitan al pueblo por su fuerza de trabajo. Y, en el hipotético caso de que la inteligencia artificial ocupe la mayor parte de estos lugares, ya no seremos necesarios. He ahí el dilema, y por ende, el temor. “Es muy peligroso no ser necesario. Así pues, el futuro de las masas dependerá de la buena voluntad de una pequeña élite.”

Los tres relatos se encuentran desfasados y lo más probable es que tengamos que buscar otro. Vemos algo lejano el súper desarrollo de las tecnologías a nivel mundial y junto con ella la IA, pero el mundo se encuentra avanzando a pasos agigantados en este aspecto, y esta realidad es cada vez más cercana.

“Pero las miras de los gigantes de los datos apuntan probablemente mucho más allá que cualquier mercader de la atención que haya existido. Su verdadero negocio no es en absoluto vender anuncios. Más bien, al captar nuestra atención consiguen acumular cantidades inmensas de datos sobre nosotros, que valen más que cualquier ingreso publicitario. No somos sus clientes: somos su producto”

Que existan los robots con conciencia es algo poco probable por no decir imposible. En realidad, lo malo de estos es que siempre obedecerán a su amo, y estarán siempre a voluntad de un ser humano emocional.

Y al decir de este autor “El peligro es que, si invertimos demasiado en desarrollar la IA y demasiado poco en desarrollar la conciencia humana, la inteligencia artificial muy sofisticada de los ordenadores solo servirá para fortalecer la estupidez natural de los humanos.”

Camila Vega

Estudiante de Periodismo en la Universidad del Norte. Escritora y lectora, amante de la música. Colaboradora en el Periódico Académico El Parlante.

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