X-3, el motor del futuro

X-3, el motor del futuro

Gran parte de la tecnología aeroespacial es la misma que hace 50 años, limitando lo que podemos hacer en materia de exploración espacial, pero los motores iónicos llegaron para cambiar eso.

Pero antes de adentrarnos de lleno a los detalles del motor, explicaremos como funcionan estos motores.

(Imagen: NASA)

Básicamente lo que hacen es utilizar electricidad para crear campos magnéticos con los que ionizan pequeñas cantidades de gases como el Xenon. Estos iones se escapan, generando el impulso. Se trata de un propulsor mucho más limpio y que necesita cantidades de combustible mucho más pequeñas para viajar por el espacio, lo que le permite alcanzar grandes velocidades, fuera del alcance de los cohetes tradicionales.

Sin embargo, como desventaja, podemos señalar que tienen un empuje muy bajo por lo que su aceleración es lenta, y es precisamente ahí en donde entra en escena el X-3, que está batiendo récords ¿Cómo? Aumentando su empuje.

(Imagen: NASA)

Generalmente los motores iónicos poseen empujes del orden de los milinewton, pero el X-3 ha sido capaz de generar un empuje de casi 6 N, muy pequeño aun si lo comparamos con los motores químicos tradicionales pero teniendo en cuenta que este tipo de motor puede funcionar durante años sin parar la ventajas sobre los últimos es evidente.

Si dudas, el motor X-3 se perfila como uno de los candidatos a ser el motor que impulse a las primeras expediciones tripuladas al planeta rojo.


Pedro Francisco Acosta Melo

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