Apuntes no matemáticos de economía – apuntes de praxeología – El mercado

Apuntes no matemáticos de economía – apuntes de praxeología – El mercado

El intercambio voluntario mutuamente beneficioso. El mercado

En el apartado correspondiente a la Ley de Utilidad Marginal hemos observado como cada individuo otorga su estima a los bienes con que cuenta de acuerdo a las necesidades que con ellos pretende satisfacer, a medida que tiene más unidades, utiliza éstas unidades para satisfacer requerimientos de menor orden en su escala de valores de necesidades. Así pues, podemos decir que a mayor cantidad del bien, disminuye su valor de uso para el consumo, pero va aumentando su valor de uso para el intercambio. Ambos usos forman parte integral de la composición del valor subjetivo de los bienes, pues corresponden en realidad a los usos que otorga el individuo al bien a disposición. Puesto que es el subjetivo ordenamiento de las necesidades del individuo lo que otorga valor de uso al bien, y en consecuencia esa jerarquización de necesidades lo que permite al individuo ceder parte de sus bienes en cambio de otros bienes cuya utilidad marginal considera superior.

Manuel Sales y Ferré

La convivencia pacífica entre individuos, posiblemente sea resultado de un sinfín de choques culturales devenidos en la evolución de las sociedades humanas y su expansión. Manuel Sales y Ferré, en su Tratado de Sociología (38), indica que la Barbarie y el Salvajismo son estados de la Civilización, siendo bárbaros los que carecen de otra organización social aparente sino la familia y salvajes aquellos que carecen inclusive de la organización familiar. Sales y Ferré ordena la evolución del círculo social, partiendo del Hetairismo[1], a la sociedad matriarcal, que luego pasa a la patriarcal que da lugar al surgimiento de las tribus, que a su vez darán lugar a las ciudades y finalmente a lo que conocemos hoy día como naciones. Acompañando esa evolución entramos un poco en lo que se denomina sicología evolucionista, y podemos descubrir que como afirma Ken Wilber, los primeros homínidos eran ya animales superiores que sería el nivel evolutivo 1 o estadio reptiliano[2], donde se destaca aún el instinto y pasan a transformarse en especie humana (estadio tifónico, nivel evolutivo 2) y al desarrollo de su mente (estadio mítico-pertenencia, nivel 3). La existencia del nivel físico del hombre depende de un sistema de intercambios con otros cuerpos físicos, minerales y vegetales, cuyo paradigma es el acto de comer o intercambio alimenticio, el desarrollo de la mente depende del intercambio de símbolos (Comunicación), desarrollo del lenguaje. Todos estos niveles de intercambio son los distintos estadios del desarrollo del compuesto humano individual. La primera unidad de intercambio específicamente humana es la comunicación verbal en el seno del ejercicio de un discurso intersubjetivo, entre individuos, dando inicio a una primitiva forma de vida social (39).

Ken Wilber

En ese contexto se desarrolla la acción humana, de recolección de alimentos y las disputas por territorio y parejas, que, con el tiempo debido al uso de razón, permite el surgimiento el intercambio comercial. Podemos hacer un ejercicio mental, y analizar la siguiente situación: un humano primitivo observa que otro va llevando alimento a su cueva, y resuelve arrebatarle el alimento de manera violenta. En el primer intento es posible que lo logre, pero en la siguiente oportunidad el segundo hombre, o ya lo esperará con un arma para defenderse del ataque o quizá ya se provisione un pedazo para entregar a cambio de paz.

La primera situación corresponde a la acción interpersonal denominada violencia o amenaza de violencia, este caso necesariamente implica el uso de la fuerza en beneficio de uno y en perjuicio del otro.

Sin embargo, en términos evolutivos, ésta no es una estrategia evolutivamente estable, el violento posiblemente considere que en el futuro el otro individuo se haga de armas y se defienda, también puede que el costo de la agresión y el riesgo a sacrificar demasiado por la victoria, le haga considerar que no compense la acción, y hasta quizá considere inmoral su actuar, y resulte que su acción justamente es la de renunciar al uso de la violencia (17).

Es posible que el individuo violento resuelva someter al segundo, como su esclavo, haciéndolo parte de los factores productivos a su disposición para la satisfacción de sus necesidades, a esto se le llama trabajo compulsorio (forzoso) y el tipo de relación es hegemónico. En este caso el individuo violento se beneficia del esclavo sometiéndolo a su voluntad, es lo que se denomina explotación, donde solo el violento es el hombre libre. Este es el modo político de satisfacción de necesidades, como menciona Oppenheimer, pues existe un poder hegemónico y un sometimiento de las partes, quienes forzosamente deben entregar parte de su producción o renta a las autoridades vigentes y someterse a las leyes y planificaciones provenientes de éstos. El otro modo es el económico que se basa en el intercambio voluntario interpersonal.

La sociedad es un término que denota intercambio interpersonal entre seres humanos, la unidad real de la sociedad es el individuo que la compone. Los individuos componen la sociedad y sus acciones determinan el tipo de patrón social sobre la cual aquella es construida.

El patrón social hegemónico, de unos sobre otros, limita el desarrollo de la sociedad en su conjunto, puesto que el beneficio de uno se da en detrimento del otro, lo que, a mediano plazo, dada la imposibilidad de la libre búsqueda de su propio beneficio, hace con que el sometido reduzca su productividad, a un nivel en el que considera que lo que recibe es igual o mejor a lo que entrega. El trabajador está indefectiblemente condenado a la fatiga, el estímulo a sobrellevarla proviene de la alegría del trabajo. Sin alegría, lo que existe es el fastidio, y éste lleva a la ineficiencia, por lo tanto, al empobrecimiento de toda la sociedad.

Dado lo anterior, el intercambio interpersonal solo alcanza su ápice cuando el patrón social es el intercambio voluntario, a lo cual denominamos mercado. Cada uno de los individuos de la sociedad buscando sus propios beneficios individuales, valorando subjetivamente sus medios y sus necesidades deciden intercambiar libremente, para mejorar sus respectivos niveles de satisfacción.

Como hemos visto en el apartado sobre utilidad marginal, Gaspar desea aumentar la producción de leche de sus vacas, por lo tanto, necesita cereales, Tiene la opción de producirlo por sí mismo, lo que necesariamente por costo de oportunidad y limitación de recursos, lo obligará a renunciar a parcelas de pasturas de sus vacas, para producir cereales, sin embargo, puede recurrir a los quintales de cereales de su vecino. Solano, que busca mejorar su nutrición con productos lácteos, estima conveniente adquirir una vaca para el efecto, por lo tanto, si el intercambio llegara a ocurrir, ambos participantes de la transacción resultarán beneficiados.

En un mercado sin intervenciones, todo intercambio se da porque todos los participantes reciben un beneficio. El individuo que decide buscar empleo, lo hace porque considera que se encuentra con necesidades insatisfechas, por lo que ofrece su servicio en el mercado. El empleador que decide contratarlo lo hace porque considera que en su empresa hay una necesidad insatisfecha de personal. El precio es acordado de acuerdo a la ley de utilidad marginal decreciente que influye sobre la oferta y demanda del mercado. El trabajador accede a renunciar al ocio, a cambio de dinero, buscando con ello adquirir medios capaces de satisfacer sus necesidades. El empleador renuncia a una cantidad de dinero buscando con ello adquirir el servicio del trabajador, que le permitirá producir un bien final que después de un tiempo se intercambiará por dinero que le permitirá acceder a otros medios satisfacientes. Ambos actores persiguiendo sus propios beneficios, voluntariamente realizaron el intercambio y ambos se han beneficiado.

Cuando un individuo va al mercado del pueblo motivado por un estado de insatisfacción, que puede ser la heladera vacía, lleva un bien, cuyo servicio es facilitar el intercambio, ese bien es el dinero. El verdulero del mercado pone sus mercaderías en venta al público, también buscando elevar su nivel de satisfacción, es decir buscando su beneficio. El intercambio se da porque el comprador considera que está obteniendo un excedente, es decir, la utilidad del bien adquirido supera la utilidad del bien entregado, lo que Alfred Marshall denominó “Excedente del Consumidor” y el vendedor del mismo modo considera que obtiene un excedente, el “Excedente del Productor” (40). En el caso de que el consumidor considere que la cantidad dineraria a entregar por un bien es exagerada, es lo que llamamos comúnmente, el precio es caro, es decir, la utilidad marginal del bien a adquirir estima que está por debajo de la utilidad marginal del bien a entregar a cambio. Si el comprador ofrece dinero por los vegetales y el tendero cree que es poco, es porque considera que la utilidad marginal de los vegetales está por encima de la utilidad marginal de la cantidad de dinero ofrecida por el comprador. Así pues, solo ocurrirá el intercambio cuando ambos lleguen a la conclusión de que están percibiendo un beneficio en el intercambio. Es decir, se efectúa el intercambio voluntario mutuamente beneficioso. Esto permite el desarrollo de la división del trabajo que conduce a la especialización, y por consiguiente la expansión del desarrollo económico de la sociedad.

Ahora bien, la relación entre el comprador y el vendedor se da dentro de un marco de mutuo beneficio, sin embargo otra de las características naturales de la interacción social en un ámbito de escasez de bienes, el cuál adquiere su propia característica en el mercado puro es la competencia que se da en las disputas entre oferentes por su propio lado y demandantes por su propio lado como veremos en la siguiente entrega.

Bibliografía

1. Ferré MSy. Tratado de Sociología Madrid: Librería de Victoriano Suarez; 1889.
2. Wilber K. Despues del Eden Barcelona: Editorial Kairós S.A.; 1981.
3. Rothbard M. Man, Economy and State, with Power and Market Rothbard M, editor. Aurburn: Ludwig Von Mises Institute; 2009.
4. Marshall A. Principles of Economics. Octava ed. London: Macmillan and Co.; 1920.

x


[1] El Hetairismo según Johan J. Beschofen es una fase telúrica, nómada y salvaje del desarrollo de las sociedades humanas, caracterizado por la inexistencia de la propiedad y por el “poliamor”, donde el único vínculo que se generó es la relación madre e hijo, que posteriormente dio lugar al matriarcado.

[2] Según el neurocientífico estadounidense Paul McLean, el cerebro humano en su proceso evolutivo pasó por tres etapas, la reptiliana, cuando el cerebro se ocupaba de las funciones básicas para la supervivencia, el sistema límbico donde se procesan la afectividad o emociones y el neocórtex, que permitió el desarrollo de los símbolos, el lenguaje y la intelectualidad.

Víctor Ocampos

894 comentarios en «Apuntes no matemáticos de economía – apuntes de praxeología – El mercado»

  1. This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!|

  2. I’m really enjoying the theme/design of your web site. Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility issues? A couple of my blog audience have complained about my website not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Safari. Do you have any ideas to help fix this problem?|

  3. Hey! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any tips?|

  4. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site. I really hope to see the same high-grade blog posts from you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my very own site now ;)|

  5. It’s in point of fact a great and helpful piece of info. I am satisfied that you shared this helpful info with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.|

  6. Superb blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m totally overwhelmed .. Any recommendations? Thanks!|

  7. You’re so cool! I don’t suppose I’ve read through a single thing like this before. So good to discover somebody with genuine thoughts on this subject. Really.. many thanks for starting this up. This web site is one thing that’s needed on the web, someone with a bit of originality!|

  8. My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find almost all of your post’s to be what precisely I’m looking for. Do you offer guest writers to write content in your case? I wouldn’t mind composing a post or elaborating on many of the subjects you write with regards to here. Again, awesome site!|

  9. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I encounter a blog that’s both educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue is an issue that not enough men and women are speaking intelligently about. I’m very happy I stumbled across this during my search for something relating to this.|

  10. I believe what you published made a bunch of sense. But, think about this, suppose you were to write a awesome title? I am not saying your content is not good, but what if you added a headline to possibly grab folk’s attention? I mean BLOG_TITLE is kinda vanilla. You might glance at Yahoo’s home page and note how they create article headlines to grab viewers to open the links. You might try adding a video or a related picture or two to get readers excited about what you’ve got to say. In my opinion, it might bring your posts a little livelier.|

  11. What’s up it’s me, I am also visiting this website on a regular basis, this web page is in fact pleasant and the visitors are in fact sharing fastidious thoughts.|

  12. I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Keep up the excellent works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my web site 🙂

  13. Hi there! This post could not be written any
    better! Reading through this article reminds me of
    my previous roommate! He constantly kept preaching about this.
    I’ll forward this article to him. Fairly certain he’ll have
    a great read. Thanks for sharing!

  14. I simply couldn’t leave your web site before suggesting that I really loved the standard information an individual provide in your visitors?
    Is going to be again incessantly to investigate cross-check new posts

  15. Great article. It is quite unfortunate that over the last several years, the travel industry has already been able to to tackle terrorism, SARS, tsunamis, bird flu virus, swine flu, and also the first ever true global downturn. Through everthing the industry has proven to be robust, resilient in addition to dynamic, finding new ways to deal with hardship. There are constantly fresh challenges and the opportunity to which the field must all over again adapt and react.

  16. I don’t know whether it’s just me or if everybody else encountering problems with your blog. It appears like some of the written text in your content are running off the screen. Can somebody else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening to them as well? This could be a issue with my internet browser because I’ve had this happen previously. Thanks|

  17. A motivating discussion is worth comment. I do believe that you should write more about this subject matter, it may not be a taboo subject but usually people do not speak about such issues. To the next! Many thanks!!|

  18. Does your website have a contact page? I’m having a tough time locating it but, I’d like to send you an email. I’ve got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great website and I look forward to seeing it improve over time.|

  19. Pingback: viagra 50 mg
  20. I am now not positive where you are getting your information, however good topic. I needs to spend a while studying more or figuring out more. Thanks for great info I used to be on the lookout for this info for my mission.|

  21. whoah this weblog is wonderful i like reading your posts. Stay up the good work! You recognize, lots of people are hunting round for this information, you can aid them greatly. |

  22. I believe this is among the such a lot vital info for me. And i am glad reading your article. But want to observation on some common things, The web site taste is ideal, the articles is in point of fact nice : D. Just right task, cheers|

  23. Spot on with this write-up, I really believe that this website needs a great deal more attention. I’ll probably be back again to read more, thanks for the information!|

  24. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays.|

  25. Wow, fantastic blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is fantastic, let alone the content!|

  26. Hey! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyhow, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back frequently!|

  27. Hello my loved one! I wish to say that this article is awesome, nice written and include approximately all important infos. I’d like to see more posts like this .|

  28. Greetings, I believe your web site could possibly be having browser compatibility issues. Whenever I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping issues. I just wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Other than that, fantastic website!|

  29. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve visited your blog before but after going through a few of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m certainly delighted I came across it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back regularly!|

  30. Nice post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful information specifically the ultimate phase 🙂 I maintain such info much. I used to be seeking this particular info for a long time. Thanks and good luck. |

  31. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your sites really nice, keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back later on. Cheers|

  32. Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it, you will be a great author. I will be sure to bookmark your blog and will eventually come back at some point. I want to encourage that you continue your great writing, have a nice morning!|

  33. Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice at the same time as you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a weblog web site? The account aided me a appropriate deal. I had been a little bit familiar of this your broadcast provided bright clear idea|

  34. Howdy! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a blog article or vice-versa? My blog goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other. If you might be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Great blog by the way!|

  35. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I do not know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you are not already 😉 Cheers!|

  36. I have read so many articles about the blogger lovers except this paragraph is truly a fastidious piece of writing, keep it up.|

  37. Quality articles is the main to attract the users to pay a quick visit the website, that’s what this website is providing.|

  38. I really like what you guys are up too. This kind of clever work and coverage! Keep up the superb works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my own blogroll.|

  39. Today, I went to the beach front with my children. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said «You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.» She placed the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!|

  40. obviously like your web-site but you have to take a look at the spelling on quite a few of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling issues and I in finding it very bothersome to tell the reality on the other hand I will certainly come back again.|

  41. Hi there it’s me, I am also visiting this web page daily, this web page is in fact pleasant and the users are actually sharing pleasant thoughts.|

  42. I’ve been browsing on-line greater than three hours lately, but I never discovered any fascinating article like yours.
    It’s lovely value enough for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made
    good content as you did, the internet will probably be a lot more helpful than ever
    before.

  43. It?¦s really a great and useful piece of information. I?¦m satisfied that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  44. Hello! I simply want to give you a huge thumbs up for the excellent info you’ve got here on this post. I will be returning to your blog for more soon.|

  45. Wow! This blog looks exactly like my old one!
    It’s on a entirely different subject but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Great choice of colors!

  46. Hi would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m looking to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design and style
    seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely
    unique. P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

  47. Ahaa, its nice discussion concerning this paragraph here at this blog, I have read all that, so at
    this time me also commenting at this place.

  48. First of all I would like to say wonderful blog! I had a quick question which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind. I was curious to know how you center yourself and clear your mind before writing. I’ve had a tough time clearing my mind in getting my thoughts out. I truly do enjoy writing but it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes tend to be lost just trying to figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or tips? Kudos!|

  49. Great weblog here! Additionally your web site lots up fast! What host are you the use of? Can I get your associate link in your host? I desire my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol|

  50. It’s actually very complicated in this busy life to listen news on Television, so I only use world wide web for that reason, and get the hottest information.|

  51. Thanks for your posting. I also believe that laptop computers are becoming more and more popular these days, and now tend to be the only sort of computer employed in a household. Simply because at the same time they are becoming more and more economical, their computing power keeps growing to the point where they may be as strong as desktop coming from just a few in years past.

  52. It’s the best time to make some plans for the longer term and it’s time to
    be happy. I have learn this publish and if I may I want to
    suggest you some interesting things or tips. Maybe you could write next articles regarding this article.
    I desire to learn more things about it!

  53. I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your website. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme? Fantastic work!|

  54. Do you have a spam problem on this blog; I also am a
    blogger, and I was curious about your situation; we have developed some nice
    practices and we are looking to swap methods with other folks, be sure to
    shoot me an email if interested.

  55. Howdy very nice blog!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Wonderful ..
    I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds additionally?
    I’m glad to find numerous helpful info here in the submit, we’d like work out
    extra strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.
    . . . . .

  56. Do you have a spam problem on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was wondering your situation; we have developed some nice methods and we are looking to trade solutions with others, please shoot me an e-mail if interested.|

  57. Pingback: women viagra
  58. Pingback: buy cialis cheap
  59. Pingback: buy viagra now
  60. Pingback: canada meds
  61. I had a horrific affair working with their azithromycin professionals, irritating to bring to light the fair winter tires and rims that strong my fresh vehicle which were actively to find. They had a momentous selection and were extraordinarily valuable all the way through the process.

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada.