Apuntes no matemáticos de economía – Apuntes sobre intervención – Medio Ambiente

Apuntes no matemáticos de economía – Apuntes sobre intervención – Medio Ambiente

Medio Ambiente

Las intervenciones estatales en el mercado son innumerables y muchas de ellas son responsables de los mayores desastres ambientales del mundo. Son los grandes problemas que generan la planificación centralizada, los ingenieros sociales planificando el desarrollo del país dictan legislación para incentivar o desincentivar la producción de bienes, de acuerdo a lo que dictan las teorías de las externalidades. Entre ellos tenemos por ejemplo, los subsidios para la producción de biodiesel, o la construcción de inmensas centrales hidroeléctricas y su respectivo impacto ambiental, el fomento de la colonización de territorio con fines estratégicos, etc. Del mismo modo resulta importante comentar las propiedades públicas, como los ríos, los mares, los espacios públicos en las ciudades, el aire, etc. Que quedan a cargo del Estado, pero éste no tiene condiciones de proteger o de fijar precios de mercado para evitar las externalidades.

El economista institucionalista Thomas DeGregori explica que tanto Clarence Ayres como Erich Zimmermann consideran que no existen recursos por sí mismo, ellos llegan a ser recursos (Gregori, 1987).

Erich Walter Zimmermann

La tierra (como recurso humano) es creada por la tecnología (y la ciencia) de la misma manera que los minerales se convierten en recursos. Las primeras herramientas que permitieron a las personas cazar y cosechar la tierra con mayor intensidad aumentaron el carácter de los recursos de esa tierra. Las herramientas de piedra que permitieron al hombre primitivo desenterrar las raíces de los suelos de sabanas duras como rocas convirtieron esas raíces en un recurso humano y, con la domesticación de las plantas, algunos de los fondos húmedos de los ríos con inversión de insectos adquirieron el potencial de ser tierras agrícolas. La agricultura creó tierra cultivable, y con ella se logra alimentar a una población cada vez más creciente.

El economista Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, en su obra “La ley de la Entropía y el proceso económico”, alerta que la afinidad entre economía y termodinámica es profunda. Por muy capaces que seamos de perder de vista la cuestión, el objetivo primario de la actividad económica es la conservación de la especie humana, que la vida biológica como toda nuestra vida económica se alimenta de baja entropía liberando alta entropía. Es decir consume energía libre y libera energía restringida ya inutilizable (Georgescu-Roegen, 1996).

La preocupación principal de Georgescu era que el mercado no lograría la asignación intergeneracional de recursos de manera satisfactoria, al punto en que menciona en un apartado que un niño hoy es un niño menos en el futuro. Sin embargo este planteamiento si extrapolamos en el tiempo sería como sugerir a un leñador de la edad media a que no corte árboles para calentar su hogar en invierno, pues si procede así, en el futuro las generaciones no podrán disfrutar de los árboles. El punto es que la humanidad como todos los seres vivos del planeta, consumen energía y generan mayor entropía necesariamente.

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen

Los seres humanos buscan constantemente mejorar su nivel de satisfacción y eso le permitió desarrollar técnicas que le permitieron modificar la naturaleza para su propio bienestar. La historia de la evolución de la vida es una historia de adaptación al medio ambiente, y posiblemente lo que permitió al hombre no sucumbir ante la competencia de otros animales en la selección natural ha sido su adaptabilidad en primera instancia y luego su capacidad de adaptar la naturaleza a su uso.

El ser humano compite con otros seres vivos y se enfrenta a la materia inanimada para mantener ininterrumpido su proceso evolutivo, del mismo modo los demás seres vivos, desde los organismos unicelulares hasta las ballenas. Compiten por recursos y buscan adaptarse al medio para sobrevivir, las mutaciones son constantes en la biología y atienden siempre a la necesidad de la supervivencia.

La humanidad al verse ante la limitación de recursos entra en los conflictos de intereses entre individuos, pues las necesidades existen y ellas son satisfechas por bienes, y estos al verse limitados por su propia configuración en la naturaleza, pasan a ser bienes económicos. El ser humano por orden espontáneo va desarrollando convenciones que le permiten sortear los impedimentos que la naturaleza en su indiferente evolución le impone. Entre ellos la propiedad privada, la familia, el matrimonio, el derecho, el mercado, el dinero, etc. Y el caso que nos compete analizar en este apartado es el primero citado.

El ser humano genera desechos, alta entropía como dice Georgescu-Roegen, y los economistas “ortodoxos” han desarrollado la teoría de las externalidades para explicar el problema. Pues consideran que al no internalizar los costos de los desechos se externaliza a la comunidad. Así tenemos los problemas de polución sonora, polución del aire, residuos industriales en ríos, arroyos y mares.

Existe una expresión popular que dice que lo que es de todos es de nadie. Esto tiene un significado especial en relación con el tema de la contaminación. Existen problemas porque el aire, el agua y los bosques que están contaminados generalmente pertenecen a todos. La basura generalmente es arrojada en espacios públicos, y en nuestro país en terrenos baldíos donde se supone no hay dueño identificado. Desde Ronald Coase hasta Walter Block, muchos economistas han percibido que el problema de las externalidades en realidad es un problema de indefinición de propiedad privada. Walter Block inclusive considera que si se pudo aplicar la propiedad privada sobre el suelo, por qué no puede ser aplicado sobre los cursos de agua e inclusive el mar?. Los individuos generalmente protegen su propiedad, por lo que se genera un conflicto directo si alguien pretende arrojar basura dentro de los límites de tu propiedad, lo cual inhibe al que pretende arrojar, por lo tanto no lo hace. Toda propiedad pública es la que padece los problemas de polución, sea el aire, los cause hídricos, el mar, etc. (Block, 1989).

Los buques pesqueros o balleneros lanzan sus redes y arpones en las aguas internacionales, donde no existe derecho de propiedad. Las fábricas emiten sus desechos gaseosos al aire, lo mismo los vehículos automotores, pues el aire no tiene delimitación de propiedad. El planteamiento habitual para esta problemática generalmente se basa en la intervención estatal, los impuestos pigouvianos principalmente, como también la proliferación de las distintas oficinas estatales encargadas de las autorizaciones y regulaciones ambientales. Y ¿Cuáles son los efectos de estas intervenciones? Además de todos los trámites burocráticos y sus respectivos costos, tenemos algunas distorsiones como las que se describen como sigue:

Walter Block
  • La proliferación del mercado negro, en el caso de las prohibiciones tanto de pesca, ballenas, marfil, cuernos de rinocerontes, animales exóticos, piedras, y un largo etc. Toda prohibición se vuelve una restricción de la oferta que se traduce en el aumento de los precios, y el desarrollo de un mercado negro creciente.
  • Aumento del costo de seguridad y justicia, en caso de que se quiera hacer cumplir las leyes (Enforcement of the law), y del costo de transacciones en caso de la proliferación de las coimas para evitar sanciones.
  • Restringir la explotación de bosques en X país, puede hacer con que la producción se desvíe a otros campos en otros países, manteniéndose el problema original.

En referencia a la deforestación, es importante considerar que la propia existencia de la vida genera el consumo de energía disponible en la tierra (que recupera en parte con la energía proveniente del sol), y la actividad humana al buscar su supervivencia inicia adaptándose a la naturaleza y luego pasa a adaptar la naturaleza para su bienestar.

La economía estudia la acción humana que busca lograr sus distintos fines, estos fines compiten entre sí. En el caso de la deforestación, la pregunta suele ser «¿por qué se deforesta?» y la respuesta inmediata es por la codicia o ganancia de los dueños de la tierra. Pero la pregunta correcta para responder a un por qué suele ser cambiar la pregunta a un ¿Para qué? Entonces, ¿para qué se deforesta? Pues para satisfacer la necesidad de los consumidores, que ansiosos por satisfacer sus propias necesidades, están dispuestos a pagar por su alimentación.

Es por ello que los precios de mercado de la carne o los granos incentivan a otros individuos a renunciar a cierta comodidad financiera y lo conducen a la adquisición y transformación de la tierra en campos de cultivo o de ganadería. Entonces el problema de la deforestación en mi opinión es un caso de competencia entre consumidores. Unos demandan alimentos, otros demandan bosques. El problema es que aquellos que demandan alimentos, transmiten tal urgencia en los pecios que están dispuestos a pagar. Por tanto, si la gente desea bosques, debe estar dispuesto a disputarles en el mercado a los otros consumidores, ofreciendo mejores precios por ellos.

Hoy día tanto el estado nacional como las entidades de planificación centralizada supranacionales son partidarios de la producción de legislación para prohibir la explotación de los bosques. Esta prohibición resulta en una alteración o distorsión de información para el mercado, que puede traducirse en graves problemas de coordinación a futuro, como el aumento del costo de la tierra, pues mantener parte de la propiedad sin ser explotada asume un carácter como el del encaje legal en el suministro de dinero, es decir, encarece el dinero.

En este caso, el coeficiente de reserva de bosques puede hacer con que se encarezca la tierra, dificultando aún más el acceso a la misma por aquellos pequeños o medianos potenciales productores. Restringir la producción agrícola y pecuaria también puede generar el encarecimiento de los alimentos en caso de que el mercado no halle otra solución. Como la halló con la revolución verde, es decir el aumento exponencial de la productividad de la tierra gracias al desarrollo de pesticidas, fertilizantes, riego y modificación genética de las semillas. Todo esto permitió inclusive la disminución del uso de tierras marginales, permitiendo la vuelta de bosques en esas tierras (Avery, 1995).

El propio mercado va encontrando salidas para muchos de los problemas ambientales, por ejemplo la conservación de grandes especies como los elefantes en África, que se están dando gracias a los grandes parques privados que se dedican a la cría de elefantes.

“El establecer derechos de propiedad sobre los elefantes es la única solución que proveería los incentivos necesarios para que ambos escenarios sean posibles. Actualmente, los paquidermos no son más que ratas gigantes para los locales, quienes no ven ningún beneficio en su presencia. Los grupos que presionan para que el elefante sea protegido se encuentran en Europa y Norteamérica, y no tienen que hacer frente con los daños y pérdidas que estos animales causan. Al definir derechos de propiedad sobre los elefantes, los lugareños tendrían el incentivo de garantizar su protección, a la vez de recibir ingresos monetarios de quienes valoran la conservación de dichos animales” (Hidalgo, 2002).

Juan Carlos Hidalgo

Casos similares se dan con todo el mercado de turismo de aventura. Y en el caso de Paraguay tenemos a varias especies de peces que han salido del peligro de extinción gracias a la piscicultura (los conocidos pesque y pague).

En conclusión, los grandes problemas ambientales son debido a las indefiniciones de propiedad, y las soluciones estales no logran ser satisfactorias y en muchos casos empeoran la situación al impedir que se generen soluciones mercadológicas para el problema planteado.

Por Victor Ocampos

Bibliografía

Avery, D. (1995). Salvando el planeta con pesticidas y plásticos. Indianapolis: Hudson Institute.

Block, W. (1989). Economics and the environment: a reconciliation. (W. Block, Ed.) Vancouver: Fraser Institute.

Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1996). La ley de la entropía y el proceso económico (Economía y Naturaleza ed.). Buenos Aires: Visor Distribuciones.

Gregori, T. D. (Septiembre de 1987). Resources are not, they become: An institutional theory. Journal of economics issues, 21(3).

Hidalgo, J. C. (2002). Recuperado el 20 de Enero de 2019, de elcato.org: https://www.elcato.org/elefantes-africanos-una-solucion-de-mercado

Víctor Ocampos

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