El módulo de mando del Programa Apolo

El módulo de mando del Programa Apolo

En las misiones del Programa Apolo se denominaba módulo de mando al vehículo encargado de transportar a los tres astronautas hasta la órbita de la Luna, mantenerlos allí y hacerlos regresar a la Tierra mediante el amerizaje controlado.

La cápsula Apolo tenía forma de cono, con una altura de 3,18 m y un diámetro en la base de 3,9 m y su peso, incluyendo a los tres astronautas, era de 5534 kilogramos. La misma poseía un escudo térmico que protegía a la tripulación durante el reingreso atmosférico.

La nave contaba con un sistema de pilotaje con más de 500 interruptores, 40 indicadores y al menos 70 luces, encontrándose los dispositivos principales duplicados para mayor seguridad, aquellos que controlan el sistema de estabilización y control S.C.S. encargado de mantener la posición de vuelo de la nave y el empuje deseado del motor de propulsión del módulo de servicio.

La nave proporcionaba una atmósfera de 100% de oxígeno, lo que permitía realizar salidas extravehiculares casi inmediatamente (lo que no se puede hacer con una atmósfera de oxigeno + nitrógeno).

Para evitar el riesgo de incendio durante la fase de despegue el ambiente era de una mezcla de oxígeno y nitrógeno, y de oxígeno puro a un tercio de atmósfera durante el vuelo por el espacio.

El espacio habitable era de 5,90 metros cúbicos, en el que se localizaba el conjunto umbilical, el de bioinstrumentación, los dosímetros para la radiación, botiquín, equipo portátil de supervivencia y la instalación de control clínico, permitiendo que cada astronauta pudiese disponer de 1,97 metros cúbicos que era aprovechado para descansar en una especie de litera con tres posiciones, de reposo, pilotaje y de pie.

Los víveres destinados a los astronautas consistían en pequeñas bolsas de plástico con alimentos desecados, a los que se añadían agua caliente o fría según el caso. El agua se obtiene como un producto secundario de las pilas de combustible, y las materias de desecho orgánicas eran eliminadas por el subsistema correspondiente.

Pedro Francisco Acosta Melo

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