Regresando a la luna

Regresando a la luna

Cuando fuimos a la luna en el marco del programa Apolo se pensaba que era el comienzo de una nueva oleada de colonizadores que paulatinamente poblarían la superficie lunar extendiendo la influencia de la civilización humana. Desde luego nada de eso ha ocurrido aún, y puede que todavía tengamos que esperar mucho.

Sin embargo, nada nos impide estudiar como deberíamos prepararnos para una eventual colonización de nuestro satélite natural. Así que veamos que necesitamos para vivir en la luna.

Crédito de la imagen: NASA: NIAC, construcción robótica de infraestructura lunar y marciana. NIAC significa Proyecto de Concepto Avanzado de Innovación. Centro USC para Tecnologías de Fabricación Automatizada Rápida.

Lo primero a evaluar es el tipo de instalaciones a ser utilizadas. La Luna ejerce una atracción gravitatoria de 1/6 de la de la Tierra, así que los ingenieros podrán construir estructuras menos condicionadas por la gravedad. Además se deberán usar materiales locales donde y cuando sea posible.

El coste del lanzamiento, desde la Tierra, de materiales de construcción sería astronómico, así que sería mejor que esos materiales se obtuvieran de minas lunares.

Esto implica que, antes de construir nuestra primera base lunar, deberemos realizar una prospección geológica para averiguar dónde y cuánto material se pueden emplear para la construcción.

Se ha sugerido que las zonas polares australes de la luna, con grandes reservas detectadas de agua sería un lugar bastante prometedor, pero deben ser confirmadas por nuevas exploraciones preferentemente desde la superficie lunar.

¿Donde construir la base?

Se ha determinado que un buen lugar para instalar nuestra base sería en los polos de la luna, ya que en los mismos se ha detectado importantes cantidades de agua, que será fundamental a la hora de mantener una base habitada.

Crédito de la imagen: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/stereo/news/stereo_astronauts.html

El agua además de la obvia utilidad, puede descomponerse en oxigeno para respirar, también se pueden obtener oxígeno e hidrógeno líquidos los cuales son excelentes propergoles para cohetes. Las grandes cantidades de agua presentes en la luna permitirían a la base disminuir su dependencia de suministros de la tierra lo que abarataría enormemente el proyecto.

Base lunar

El regolito lunar (finos granos de roca pulverizados por la acción de los micro meteoritos) se puede usar, por ejemplo, para cubrir partes del hábitat y así proteger de los rayos cósmicos a los pobladores, ya que el exceso de radiaciones podrían provocar cáncer, también dicho material podría usarse para proporcionar aislamiento térmico.

Según algunos estudios, se requiere un espesor de regolito de al menos 2,5 metros para proteger el cuerpo humano y hacer que se encuentre en unos niveles de radiación ambiental “seguros”.

Crédito de la imagen: http://www.mining.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/even-with-iron-ore-prices-diving-nasa-fast-tracks-mission-to-10000-quadrillion-asteroid.jpg

También se requerirá una alta eficiencia energética, así que los diseños deberán incorporar materiales de alto nivel de aislamiento para asegurar una pérdida mínima de calor.

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Pedro Francisco Acosta Melo

581 comentarios en «Regresando a la luna»

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