La reconstrucción del error o la historia del Hombre

La reconstrucción del error o la historia del Hombre

El capítulo “Lo sacro y lo profano en el mundo moderno” ensayado en este texto pertenece al libro “Lo sagrado y lo profano” de Mircea Eliade. En dicho capítulo, el filósofo expone a dos fenómenos sociales: el hombre religioso (homo religiosus) y el hombre arreligioso.

El primero es aquel que vive conscientemente la vida religiosa, toda la mitología proveniente de sus ancestros. El hombre arreligioso, por otra parte, es aquel que rechaza la trascendencia.

Eliade afirma que el pensamiento religioso se inmiscuye en cada acción que realice una persona, incluso si asegura ser laico, dando ejemplos como la celebración del Año Nuevo y las fiestas propias de un matrimonio. El hombre sin religión es entonces, según define, producto de las acciones de sus antepasados religiosos.

Pero se compromete, de más a mi parecer: así, en el desnudismo o en los movimientos en pro de la libertad sexual absoluta, ideologías donde se pueden entrever las huellas de la «nostalgia del Paraíso», el deseo de reintegrarse al estado edénico anterior a la caída, cuando no existía el pecado y no se daba una ruptura entre la bienaventuranza carnal y la conciencia (Eliade, 1957, pág. 126)[1].

Cuando menciona la libertad sexual como un movimiento que añora al paraíso, e ignora el sexismo que lo causa (bien instalado en la década del 50), encontramos el punto de partida para el motivo de este ensayo.

Cuestionar la historia es el primer paso hacia una reconstrucción. La visión religiosa es indudablemente algo que nos acompaña desde nuestros primeros pasos como civilización. Es, en consecuencia, un reflejo de la historia del hombre, se ha desarrollado en tanto se ha desarrollado la sociedad. Como la historia ha sido patriarcal, lo es también la religión y su teología.

Cristo de San Juan de la Cruz. Detalle. Salvador Dalí

En ellas (las religiones) se considera al varón superior por tres mitos:

1. Dios creó primero al varón; la mujer fue creada después y es por lo tanto una criatura antológicamente derivada y secundaria. (2 relatos de creación y Corán + Hadiz)

2. La mujer fue la causante de la expulsión del Edén, de dónde se sigue que todas las hijas de Eva son dignas de sospecha y desprecio (Islam: no hay pecado original, ni expulsión, ni caída)

3. La mujer fue creada “para” el varón, y tiene por tanto una existencia instrumental. Su existir no es fundamental (oriente: muerte del varón y sacrificio de la viuda…) (Pintos, 2008, pág. 2)[2]

Cuando pensamos en la Revolución Francesa y en la Ilustración, no podemos evitar pensar en los derechos conquistados, tales como: la igualdad ante la ley, la libertad, la propiedad privada, etc. Sin embargo estos derechos solo fueron concedidos a los varones. La mujer seguía encadenada a la vida privada y cualquier intento de escapar de ella sería duramente castigado, como fue el caso de Marie Gouze[3] quien fue llevada a la guillotina. Las mujeres eran el Tercer Estado dentro del Tercer Estado.

Las cartas de D’alembert a Rousseau exponen perfectamente la situación de la mujer durante la Ilustración. En estas, el primero manifiesta su creencia en la igualdad entre los sexos ante un Rousseau que defendía la idea de mujer doméstica e instrumental para el varón:

No examinaré, Señor, si tenéis razón al exclamar “¿dónde encontraremos una mujer atractiva y virtuosa?”, como el sabio se preguntaba en otras épocas “¿dónde encontraremos una mujer fuerte?”. El género humano sería muy desdichado si el objeto más digno de nuestro respeto fuera en efecto tan escaso como afirmáis. Pero si, por desgracia, tuvierais razón. ¿Cuál sería la causa de ello? La esclavitud y la degradación a que hemos reducido a las mujeres, las trabas que ponemos a su intelecto y a su corazón, la jerga fútil y humillante para ellas y para nosotros a la que hemos reducido nuestra relación con ellas como si no tuvieran una razón que cultivar o no fueran dignas de ello (Puleo, 1993, pág. 74)[4].

Así como el hombre arreligioso es, según Eliade, alguien con una religiosidad interiorizada, escondida, tal es la condición del machismo en el varón contemporáneo.

Este se ha constituido a partir de las situaciones asumidas por sus antepasados (Eliade, 1957, pág. 124)y las sigue reproduciendo en mayor o menor medida.

Aprender de los errores de la historia y reconstruirnos sería hacer un buen uso de ella.


[1] Lo sagrado y lo profano. Mircea Eliade

2 La mujer y las religiones. Pintos, Margarita

[3] http://www.pudh.unam.mx/perseo/olympe-de-gouges-y-la-declaracion-de-los-derechos-de-la-mujer-y-la-ciudadana-2/

4 La Ilustración olvidada: la polémica de los sexos en el siglo XVIII. Alicia H. Puleo

Alex Silva

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