Un Paraguayo Extraordinario: Ruy Díaz de Guzmán

Un Paraguayo Extraordinario: Ruy Díaz de Guzmán

Muchas veces los paraguayos se sienten molestos y exasperados porque nuestros «hermanos menores» en Buenos Aires pretenden presentar como suyo algo que en realidad no les pertenece. Pasa con la famosa «choclotorta», por ejemplo, que en realidad es una receta antigua del Paraguay que fue traída por los conquistadores españoles y que aquí tomó su conformación actual de «chipa guazu».

Y podríamos citar muchísimos casos más, que lejos de molestarnos, deberían hacernos sentir orgullosos pues indica la desesperada necesidad de nuestros vecinos de obtener elementos de identidad que refuercen su sentido nacional y también demuestra que el Paraguay, al menos en lo que cultura refiere, podría (con muchas mejores políticas de promoción, difusión y valorización) convertirse en una potencia hegemónica en el campo de la tradición, la preservación de las costumbres y la historia.

Un antiguo ejemplo de ese «intento» porteño de apropiarse de figuras que no le pertenecen (cosa que repito, no debería ser motivo de enojo sino de orgullo y que lejos de generar indignación, tendría que convertirse en elemento de valorización: nos falta un poco más de imperialismo paraguayo) lo podemos encontrar en un hombre extraordinario, de esos que pertenecen a la epopeya y la leyenda.

Nos referimos al Teniente General Don Ruy Díaz de Guzmán, nacido aparentemente en el año 1559 (no se conoce el día exacto) en la Ciudad de Asunción, entonces Capital de la Gobernación del Paraguay y el Río de la Plata (entonces cabeza de toda la región, bajo mandato del Virreinato del Perú). Hijo de Don Alonso Riquelme de Guzmán y Doña Úrsula de Irala (hija del Gobernador y Adelantado Don Domingo Martínez de Irala y la india guaraní Leonor).

Don Ruy Díaz de Guzmán, según una estampilla conmemorativa. El paraguayo fue el primer historiador nativo del Río de la Plata. [Imagen: Facebook].

Así, vemos que Ruy Díaz de Guzmán era mestizo por la madre y además, nieto directo del hombre más importante en el nacimiento del Paraguay, Domingo Martínez de Irala. Se dedicó a la carrera de las armas desde pequeño y con Ruy Díaz de Melgarejo fundó la ciudad de Villarrica del Espíritu Santo en 1570.

Su trabajo como comandante militar y lugarteniente de varios pueblos españoles en el Paraguay se acrecentó y alcanzó ribetes de leyenda cuando le tocó trasladar la Ciudad de Villarrica y realizar la fundación del Fuerte de Santiago de Jerez, en la actual zona del Mato Groso (que desde tiempos inmemoriales perteneció al Paraguay, lo demuestra la vida y obra del mismo Ruy Díaz de Guzmán). De hecho, fue el Primer «Teniente Gobernador del Territorio y Tenencia de Santiago de Jerez» (1596-1599) luego de haber ocupado el mismo cargo, pero para el Territorio del Guayra.

Finalmente, luego de abandonar Jerez de la Frontera (como la llamaron siempre los paraguayos), fue uno de los colonizadores de Buenos Aires, donde permaneció por cierto tiempo fundando instituciones educativas y conventos. Viajó por varias ciudades de la Gobernación del Paraguay y el Río de la Plata (Santa Fe, Tucumán, Charcas, etc) hasta que regresó a su Asunción natal, en donde ejerció como Alcalde de Primer Voto en el Cabildo. Finalmente, falleció el 14 de Junio de 1629, querido y admirado por toda la población paraguaya.

Pero Ruy Díaz de Guzmán no solo fue el primer «conquistador nativo» en el Paraguay (y cuando digo «Paraguay» ya incluyo a Buenos Aires y demás territorios hacia el Sur) sino que además, tiene como mérito inigualable haber sido el primer escritor e historiador nacido en la región del Río de la Plata. Su obra más famosa fue «Anales del Descubrimiento, Población y Conquista del Río de la Plata», que concluyó el 25 de Junio de 1612.

Los bonaerenses y porteños, con ese instinto natural de falsificación de la historia que les ha caracterizado, obtuvieron una copia de la obra de Ruy Díaz de Guzmán y la volvieron a publicar aproximadamente en 1830 poniéndole como nombre «La Argentina» y presentándola como «la primera obra sobre la historia de la Argentina». ¿Les puede extrañar lo de la «choclotorta»?

Dibujo del Tte. Gobernador Don Ruy Díaz de Guzmán, quien lleva bajo el brazo la obra falsamente titulada «La Argentina», cuyo nombre original es «Historia y Anales del Descubrimiento, Población y Conquista del Río de la Plata», el primer libro escrito por un nativo de estas regiones. [Imagen: ABC Color/Facebook].

De cualquier manera, se sabe que el título original no es ese. Al punto tal que en Paraguay, en tiempos de Don Carlos Antonio López, se contaba con el manuscrito original de la obra del gran conquistador, investigador e historiador paraguayo. El británico George Masterman así lo cuenta en su libro (mayormente lleno de embustes) «Seven Eventful Years in Paraguay»: que había tenido la oportunidad de acceder a los manuscritos originales de Ruy Díaz de Guzmán, que los poseía Don Carlos Antonio, y al que daban como nombre original «Historia del Descubrimiento, Población y Conquista del Río de la Plata».

Aparentemente, el manuscrito original fue extraído del «Archivo Nacional de Asunción» durante la Guerra de la Triple Alianza, entre nuestros tantos documentos robados y desaparecidos por manos de los aliados y los legionarios…

De cualquier manera, aprovechamos la ocasión para resaltar y valorizar un poco más a este ilustre compatriota, a quien muchas veces tenemos olvidado (pero que deberíamos resaltar muchísimo más, pues fue, es y será por siempre paraguayo). Don Ruy Díaz de Guzmán es hijo de esta tierra, hombre de origen hispano y guaraní a la vez, asunceño de pura cepa, paraguayo de alma como toda su obra.

Emilio Urdapilleta

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