El arte y la ciencia, como adaptación y transformación

El arte y la ciencia, como adaptación y transformación

«¡Ciencia! ¡Hija verdadera del tiempo antiguo, eres tú!

Que alteras todas las cosas con tus ojos fisgones

¿Por qué devoras así el corazón del poeta, Buitre,

cuyas alas son realidades lánguidas? «

E. A. Poe

Por más avanzados que nos consideremos “supuestamente” seres especiales por su intelecto, científicos, artistas, ingenieros, abogados, doctores, gente rica, gente pobre, más allá de las ciudades, máquinas y artefactos que construyamos, más allá de nuestra pedantería antropocentrista, más allá del trapo que cubre nuestra desnudes somos todos seres orgánicos.

Pertenecemos al reino animalia, estamos formados por átomos de carbono, oxigeno, hidrogeno, nitrógeno, átomos que nacieron a su vez de estrellas; en fin, compartimos con la más humilde de las criaturas la forma de codificar nuestra información genética en infinitas hebras de doble hélice, hebras formadas por bases nitrogenadas que por su estructura polarizable están unidas por puentes de hidrógeno con la fuerza precisa de no ser tan fuertes, ni tan débiles como para permitir la replicación de las proteínas, la reproducción de la especie, el milagro de la vida y de la muerte.

Busto de bronce identificado con Demócrito, Padre del atomismo. (Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Nápoles)

Partiendo de nuestro ser orgánico podemos decir que nuestra razón, producto de la evolución nos permite adaptarnos trasformando, la razón no puede ser considerada un aparte del instinto (hay que aclarar que la inteligencia o la razón no significan necesariamente virtud, una persona inteligente no necesariamente es buena, porque sea inteligente o racional)

Giordano Bruno, adelantado a su tiempo, quien también observó de manera artísticamente científica al universo. ISTOCKPHOTO/THINKSTOCK

A veces la racionalidad con su aparente independencia es puesta en vergüenza, es esclavizada por el instinto que la somete y manipula para su fin supremo.

En la medida que podamos someter nuestros instintos a la inteligencia emocional que implique una ética hacia el bienestar de la especie humana, hacia su supervivencia, en la medida que el «yo» conductor (parafraseando a Freud) pueda llevar el carro, sin que se descarrile, controlando al caballo negro (ello, inconsciente) y al caballo blanco («súper yo», conciencia moral) seremos personas equilibradas y viviremos momentos felices. (Aunque el equilibrio estático no exista, el equilibrio es dinámico e implica el desequilibrio).

Pero como diría Kierkegaard “la felicidad se da en fragmentos”, (la felicidad absoluta tampoco existe, así como el sufrimiento absoluto). Lo cual no significa que despreciemos la vida, aceptando esa realidad. Ahí está la sabiduría suprema del poeta trágico (según Schopenhauer):

“El poeta trágico tiene el fin de mostrarnos el aspecto terrible de la vida, los dolores sin nombre, las angustias de la humanidad, el poder sarcástico del azar, el triunfo de los malos, la pérdida del justo y el inocente, pues encontramos ahí una indicación significativa de la naturaleza de este mundo y de la existencia… Lo que presenta la tragedia ante nuestros ojos es el conflicto de la voluntad consigo misma, mostrándose con todos sus horrores”.

Søren Kierkegaard

Sin embargo como plantearía Nietzsche:

“Lo desmesurado se rebeló como verdad; el conflicto sentimental, el éxtasis parido por el dolor brotó espontáneamente del corazón de la naturaleza”.

En otras palabras, la catarsis, es la máxima expresión de la alegría del alma pues trasciende el sufrimiento para producir éxtasis, placer, lo amargo se convierte en dulce, agridulce. Lo que nos muestran los antiguos es la realidad del mundo y de que el ser humano tiene formas de burlarse del sufrimiento y de los dioses: No hay que temer, hay que vivir, aceptar el mundo como es y adaptarse, transformándonos.

Lo que me fascina cuando me miro las manos, cuando redescubro mi cuerpo orgánico, fisicoquímico, es que con este cuerpo de carne, huesos y agua puedo sentir dolor y purificarme, y la vez, ser consciente de mi existencia a partir de la contemplación de una obra artística, obra que debe ser, para producir su efecto, verdadera, esencial.

Friedrich Nietzsche

Y a pesar del conocimiento objetivo y limitado que nos da la ciencia de que ese dolor, esa purificación producida por un PROMETEO ENCADENADO (que expía el pecado de dar al hombre la llama de la ciencia),  es consecuencia de la interacción química de neurotransmisores, a pesar de esa verdad a medias,  YO, no me rindo a ese determinismo y opto por la libertad, opto por la vida, pero soy consciente que mientras mi cuerpo orgánico respire también mi vida espiritual respirara.

El único proceso que no tiene vuelta atrás es la muerte, finitud que nos impone la naturaleza, máxima demostración de que no somos dioses; pero somos, sin embargo, seres falibles, sufribles, perfectibles.

La Creación de Adán.

Víctor Sosa

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