Trabajo en Paraguay: Entre la dignidad y la necesidad

Trabajo en Paraguay: Entre la dignidad y la necesidad

Hoy en día vivimos en una sociedad cada vez más compleja, con más gastos y menos ganancias, lo cual hace que una persona tenga más de una actividad laboral que le ayude a generar ingresos para poder cubrir las necesidades diarias que surgen.

El trabajo es la actividad o labor que realiza toda persona con capacidad, calificada o con ciertas aptitudes, esto nos hace crecer cada día y nos ayuda a desarrollarnos y a estar en contacto con la sociedad,  prestando servicios a una entidad pública o privada, nos ayuda psicológica, humanística y económicamente, pues esta labor es remunerada por un sueldo, el cual el Estado establece, de esta forma estaremos facilitados para invertir en temas de nuestro interés como, salud, educación, vestimenta, vivienda, alimentación, ocio, etc. Conseguir trabajo depende de muchas variables del mercado pero principalmente que sea o no sea fácil encontrarlo, tiene mucho que ver con la oferta y la demanda laboral[1].

Algunas veces para ciertas personas es un medio por el cual se satisfacen como miembros de la sociedad, es un ejercicio que nos hace mejores personas, piensan algunos. El trabajo se debe realizar de la mejor manera posible pero también con el mayor gusto, ya que es una actividad que algunas veces es rutinaria y sino le tenemos ese ritmo al trabajo, no lograremos desempeñarlo de buena forma, o al menos, eso es lo que nos hacen pensar desde antaño, principalmente desde la era de la revolución industrial donde se instauraron los modelos conocidos de producción. Lastimosamente, esto no siempre es así y si bien es cierto trabajamos para comer, a veces tenemos que embarcarnos en cosas que no nos gustan, para sobrevivir y llegar a fin de mes, de alguna forma. Así, el ciudadano común, capacitado o no debe enfrentarse al reto de aceptar cualquier trabajo por necesidad, nunca por gusto.

El ambiente laboral debe de ser agradable tanto para el empleador como para el empleado (esto en teoría, ya que sabemos que no necesariamente se cumple en la práctica y a veces, se pasa por alto, dada la necesidad acuciante de dinero) y para los clientes que habitúan el lugar, porque de ello depende un buen manejo y el buen trato hacia las personas.

En la constitución Nacional[2] el trabajo es un tema resaltante; en la misma se plantea que todos los habitantes de la República tienen derecho a un trabajo lícito, libremente escogido y a realizarse en condiciones dignas y justas. La ley protegerá el trabajo en todas sus formas y los derechos que ella otorga al trabajador son irrenunciables.

Esto se refiere a que ninguna persona debe estar obligada a trabajar en lugares insalubres u obligados a realizar trabajos forzosos o mayores a su estado físico. Ninguna persona debe de sentirse discriminada en su lugar de trabajo por ningún motivo, ya sea su color de piel, su religión, su edad o su condición social. Las personas que cuentan con capacidades diferentes también tienen derecho a desarrollarse en el ámbito laboral, esto ayudará a estas personas a poder desenvolverse también con la sociedad y su entorno, anteriormente esto no se cumplía.

Imagen conceptual de equipo de trabajo produciendo cohesivamente. Interacción y unidad. Fuente de la Imagen: https://www.ricardosalinas.com/blog/

Según la ley, todo trabajador tiene derecho a percibir una retribución por su labor. En este sentido, establece que: “la liquidación y el pago del salario se harán puntual y documentalmente en la fecha y lugar convenidos”[3].

Todos trabajamos por que tenemos necesidades que debemos cubrir diariamente, pero ¿qué hacemos cuando en nuestro lugar de trabajo no somos remunerados de forma correspondiente o somos explotados por nuestros jefes?  El Ministerio del Trabajo[4] es una entidad pública que ayuda al obrero, a las personas trabajadoras a defender su derecho, esta entidad debe amparar a estos trabajadores cuando están sufriendo de algún tipo de discriminación o irregularidad en su lugar de trabajo.

La corrupción se ha infiltrado en todos lados, en cualquier cartera del Estado y el sector privado no se ve exento de este flagelo; se suman más horas de las que ya estaban previstas, no se da el sueldo correcto; esto sería un ejemplo de la corrupción laboral, aunque no es el único caso, ya que en algunos otros hay corrupción hasta el hecho de no pagarle a las personas, o tenerlos en una zona de trabajo inapropiado y violar los derechos humanos. La corrupción llega en distintas formas a los circuitos laborales, lo más evidente es en la figura de los jefes sindicales que tienen altos ingresos y niveles de vida, sólo por ser los beneficiarios de un sistema corrupto que supuestamente luchan por las reivindicaciones salariales de sus asociados y compañeros sindicales pero la realidad es muy distinta.

Esto ocurre debido a una falta de ética, pues es cierto que existen normativas, regulaciones y reglamentos dentro de las instituciones públicas, y es más que evidente que esta ética no está familiarizada, en los funcionarios públicos, jefes y directivos.

Y a pesar de existir leyes y acuerdos anti-corrupción, parece ser que no ha surtido ningún efecto, ya que la economía del país está muy decaída[5], y a pesar de la continua lucha contra ella, siguen presentándose casos de corrupción en el ámbito laboral. Casos como estos se presentan aún más en épocas de elecciones. De esta forma, el trabajo pierde su dignidad en favor de las prebendas políticas y las promesas electorales.

Mucho se habla sobre la dificultad de encontrar trabajo en el ámbito del periodismo, y es que con los nuevos tiempos que vivimos, lo digital está encumbrándose en las alturas de las ventas, por lo que el papel, ha perdido preponderancia, aparte de que los precios para la tinta y la celulosa, han subido a cifras siderales, lo que compromete a los núcleos directivos editoriales a pensarse dos veces si seguir con el periodismo del siglo veinte o pasarse directamente al digital.

También, la independencia laboral del periodista que accede a un medio de comunicación masivo es puesta en duda, ya que en el ámbito profesional, ya no se responde a un ideal de informar, sino al ideal del cuerpo editorial y de los dueños del medio; en consecuencia, las dificultades son mayores por las necesidades que se contraponen muchas veces, a la ética o los ideales informativos. Esto implica marcar una decisión o elección hacia una de las dos variables. Se pierde con ello la dignidad del trabajador. Se entiende que trabajar de la mejor manera y con el mayor gusto, no necesariamente se cumple en la vida real.

Actualmente conseguir un empleo se vuelve más difícil por la elevada de competitividad, donde se  debe resaltar actitudes y aptitudes[6] para poder alcanzar el éxito, amén de la tan mentada experiencia, factores inequívocamente trascendentales a la hora de entrar al mercado laboral.


[1]https://www.huffingtonpost.es/quora/por-que-es-mas-dificil-conseguir-trabajo-hoy-en-dia_a_23615154/

[2]http://jme.gov.py/transito/leyes/1992.html

[3]Ibíd.

[4]Portal oficial del Ministerio del Trabajo. Link: https://www.mtess.gov.py/

[5]https://www.lanacion.com.py/negocios_edicion_impresa/2019/10/01/paraguay-cayo-en-una-recesion-economica-tecnica-confirma-bcp/

[6]https://www.eltiempo.com/economia/sectores/por-que-es-tan-dificil-conseguir-trabajo-en-colombia-137268

Elena González

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