Economía de plataforma

Economía de plataforma

«Stronger than a thousand armies, is an idea whose time has came». Más fuerte que un millar de ejércitos, es una idea a la que le ha llegado su tiempo. Oscar Wilde

A modo de introducción podemos decir que el mundo está atravesando de manera exponencial por la llamada revolución 4.0, es decir, (internet de las cosas, criptoactivos, Blockchain, IA, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Comercio Electrónico, etc.). A raíz de este fenómeno disruptivo se están creando nuevas formas de interacción social, laboral, comercial, y en particular, los negocios por medio de las Apps (ej. Fintech/Insurtech/Edutech, Legaltech/Meditech, Smart Contracts), es decir, por el intensivo uso de la tecnología. Hasta se podría decir que hoy en día somos ciudadanos de internet o del mundo digital, híper-conectados.

Es importante destacar en estos ecosistemas a las IOT, que son una parte esencial en este nuevo escenario (en inglés, «internet of thing» en su traducción, internet de las cosas), concepto que se refiere a una interconexión digital de objetos cotidianos a una red. Esta red puede ser pública o privada y puede usar la red de internet. Es la interacción de máquina a máquina, sin intervención humana (M2M, «Machine to Machine»), por lo que es un proceso de comunicación entre dispositivos, Smart watch, Smart TV, iPhone, etc.

Haciendo un recuento, la primera revolución industrial se origina con las máquinas a vapor, impulsando la expansión de la industria desde Inglaterra hasta Europa y los Estados Unidos. La segunda revolución industrial ocupó el último tramo del siglo 19 y fue por medio de la creación de automóvil (Karl Benz, Renault Voiturette, Henry Ford), los avances de la electricidad la corriente alterna y continua, (Edison, Tesla) el transporte en general, el acero (Andrew Carnegie, Steel Company), luego para finales del siglo 20, se da la tercera revolución industrial que marcó la expansión de las TICs tecnologías de la información, para ahora ingresar a la cuarta, con la robótica, nanotecnología, internet de las cosas, biotecnologías, big data, dispositivos móviles, la impresión 3D  y el «claud computing».

Esto nos muestra el entramado contractual que permite instrumentar la actividad de las aplicaciones de plataformas, que es verdaderamente complejo, ya que está compuesto por una variedad de contratos, relaciones y partes, que en muchos casos no tienen contacto directo entre sí, pero están vinculados por el negocio en general que supone las aplicaciones de plataformas.

Antes de avanzar en nuestro análisis sobre el impacto de las aplicaciones de plataformas y cuáles son, consideramos necesario hacer referencia a la incidencia de la propiedad intelectual y, en particular, a la evolución de los esquemas de licenciamiento de software, que son las bases de las aplicaciones de plataformas.

Breve reseña. (Licenciamiento tradicional al modelo «software as a service»)

La primera etapa comienza con «Shrink Wrap Agreements», algo así como contratos de envoltura retráctil, haciendo alusión a la rotura del envoltorio del paquete que contenía ese soporte físico, es decir, la época en que el software se entregaba en disquete y luego en CD o DVD, luego llega en la segunda etapa «Click Wrap Agreements», donde se da la posibilidad de descarga del software, directamente de internet. La aparición de una gran cantidad de software preinstalado en los dispositivos móviles, como reproductores de música digital, agendas inteligentes, y dispositivos móviles, es decir, los softwares preinstalados y los descargados de internet; ya no existían los envoltorios que los usuarios estaban acostumbrados a romper para aceptar la licencia, en este caso, la aceptación se daba haciendo un clic sobre el botón virtual.

Es, en esta etapa, donde comenzó una migración hacia modelos de negocios en los que el componente principal dejó de ser el pago de la licencia, como era en un principio. Por último, pasamos a la tercera etapa, «Software as a Service», que se inició con el auge del «cloud computing» (computación en la nube), que consiste en acceder de manera casi instantánea a recursos de red como servidores, almacenamientos, aplicaciones, etc. La característica fundamental es que el servidor es la nube, y esto permitió el licenciamiento del tipo de «software as a service», que constituye el antecedente inmediato y necesario de las aplicaciones de plataformas porque permitieron transformar prácticamente cualquier prestación, en un servicio que pueda ser ofrecido a través del software.

En este sentido, citamos los tipos de plataformas que existen en la actualidad de manera a demostrar el complejo entramado de relaciones que se dan en el ecosistema de las plataformas digitales. En resumen, existen 5 tipos de plataformas, el primer tipo son las plataformas de publicidad (como Google o Facebook), que extraen la información de los usuarios, llevan un trabajo de análisis y luego usan los productos de ese proceso para vender espacio publicitario.

El segundo tipo de plataformas son las de la nube (como Amazon, Web Service o Salesforce.com), son propietarios de software y hardware de los negocios que dependen netamente de lo digital y que los rentan de acuerdo a su necesidad. Luego está el tercer tipo de estas plataformas, las Industriales, (Siemens AG), son las que producen hardware y software para innovar la manufactura tradicional en procesos contactados por internet que bajan los costos de producción y transforman bienes y servicios. El cuarto tipo son las de Productos, (Netflix, Spotify), que generan sus ganancias mediante el uso de otras plataformas para transformar un bien tradicional en un servicio para los usuarios de la misma, y cobrar por ello un alquiler o una tasa de suscripción. Por último, el quinto tipo de estas plataformas son las Austeras, (como Uber o Airbnb), que intentan reducir los costos de los activos de los que son propietarios y obtener ganancias. (Srnicek, Nick, Capitalismo de plataformas).

En este orden de cosas, conviene destacar brevemente las categorías de las ISP («Internet Service Provider», proveedores de servicio de internet), dentro de las categorías de ISP´s, en la que comparten o conviven una serie de jugadores que ofrecen distintos tipos de servicios, desde la conexión a internet hasta la búsqueda de contenidos, agregando, que de acuerdo a las prestaciones que ofrecen, se pueden distinguir tres grupos básicos de ISP, a saber:

A) Operadores de las redes y proveedores de acceso: en esta categoría se encuentran las empresas que administran la infraestructura de la red (cableado, conexión, y tráfico) y los proveedores del acceso a internet que permiten a los usuarios conectarse a la red genéricamente.

B) Los prestadores de servicio de almacenamientos de datos («data mining») que almacenan los datos proveídos por los usuarios. Esto incluye el servicio de hosting que permite albergar sitios web proporcionando el soporte físico de los servidores donde están almacenados y también las plataformas donde los usuarios pueden alojar sus propios contenidos, tales como Facebook, Twitter, YouTube.

C) Proveedores de servicios de búsqueda y enlaces, que son los motores de búsqueda, como Google o Yahoo! y todos los demás que ofrecen enlaces a otros sitios. Es bueno destacar que recientemente las Unión Europea dictó una directiva 2019/790, donde se ha contemplado la figura de los prestadores de servicios para compartir en línea.  

Como vemos, la economía colaborativa está irrumpiendo en la sociedad, generando nuevas formas de interacción entre las personas, y, sobre todo, dando origen a una serie de nuevas situaciones o relaciones jurídicas, incluso, a la aparición de nuevos tipos de derechos (ej. el derecho al olvido, el derecho a no ser sometido a una decisión automatizada, es decir, la reserva de humanidad).

Siguiendo este orden de cosas se puede decir que, en la economía de plataforma o colaborativa, se tratan temas relativos a la propiedad, uso de datos personales, y contrataciones que se dan en el mundo digital entre los consumidores, usuarios y las plataformas.

En conclusión, las aplicaciones de plataformas son un nuevo modelo de empresa que se caracteriza por proporcionar la infraestructura para intermediar entre diferentes grupos de usuarios y así, establecer una nueva forma de comercio, el comercio digital.

Fuente:

  • Atta, Bottini, Camps, Forcada, Iannello, Lalanne, Magariños, Veltani. «Aspectos jurídicos de las aplicaciones de plataformas». Editorial La Ley. 2020.

Alfonso Dos Santos Heisecke

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